Space flows in, around and between forms or shapes.
A flat surface has only two-dimensional space. This means that it has length and width but no depth. It is impossible to create actual depth or space on a flat surface but an illusion of space, distance or depth is possible. There are many methods used by artists and designers to create this sense of space, and to convince the observer that there is space and depth when, in fact, they are victims of a type of visual deception. Objects placed higher up can create the feeling of depth of distance. Overlapping shapes can also create the feeling of depth, as can converging lines.
If, in two-dimensional art and design, space exists purely as an idea or concept, it leaves the artist or designer free to compress or stretch it as they wish, to portray the particular feeling that is desired.
Colours have an effect on space. Colours that are warm and bright appear closer, while dull or cool colours recede into the distance. A flat surface that is covered only with pattern can eliminate any feeling of space.